Frequently Asked Questions - Tax
If you previously claimed exemption from Connecticut tax withholding, you are required to update your state tax withholding form CT-W4 each year, before February 16th, you should have received an email notice from the Payroll office. You can update your form in the Payroll office located at 155 Whitney Avenue, Room 100.
In order to correct your tax residency status in the Tax Office files, please send to us a copy of your green card, once the Tax Office receives this document we will update your record. You will also need to complete and submit a new Form W-4 to the Payroll office.
For an individual to be exempt from FICA tax under IRS section 3121(b)(19), the individual must be: A nonresident alien; Present in the U.S. under an F, J, M, or Q immigration status; Performing services in accordance with the primary purpose of their immigration status (e.g., under the “-1” status and legally employed).
If you meet all of these criteria you can request a refund from your employer.
The taxable portion of your stipend will have a 14% tax withholding. The reduced tax rate of 14% requires that the grantee be (i) a nonresident alien temporarily present in the U.S. under an F, J, M or Q immigration status (either “-1” primary status or the “-2” dependent status) and (ii) the recipient of the stipend, scholarship or fellowship grant. Stipends, scholarships and fellowships are considered non-service payments.
The IRS regulations state that scholarship and fellowship payments will be “sourced” based on the location of the payor; except when the U.S. based payor makes payments to a nonresident alien to study or conduct research outside the U.S.; these payments are treated as “foreign source income”, not subject to tax or reporting to the IRS.
In order to be exempt from federal tax withholding first you must submit to the Tax office Form 8233 Exemption from Withholding on Compensation for Independent (and Certain Dependent) Personal Services of a Nonresident Alien Individual. Once the Tax office receives your properly completed and signed Form 8233 you can be exempt from federal tax withholding effective ten (10) days after the Tax office sends this form to the IRS.
Federal taxes are not deducted from the payment only if the check request documentation includes a properly completed Form 8233. Norway does have a tax agreement with the U.S. for independent personal services, Article 13. Since he already received the payment, at this point he can file a federal tax return for the year in question (Form 1040NR, if nonresident alien) and claim a tax refund pursuant to the treaty with Norway. He will receive Form 1042-S from the University stating the amount of the payment as well as the taxes withheld. The University cannot refund taxes properly withheld at the time of payment.
No, the primary purpose of a J-2 status individual is to accompany the spouse or dependent (i.e., J-1). There are no tax treaties that allow exemption for these individuals; therefore, your wife is subject to withholding federal tax at the standard nonresident alien rates.
The existence of an income tax treaty does not mean that you will automatically qualify for the tax exemption. You must meet the qualifications for the tax exemption as set forth in the tax treaty, you also need to file the appropriate forms in a timely fashion.
A foreign individual who does not have a Social Security Number (SSN) and wants to claim tax treaty benefits must have an ITIN. They can apply for an ITIN on Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number. It takes the IRS approximately 4-6 weeks to process the application. If a tax treaty benefit is claimed based on the ITIN application (i.e., before the ITIN is actually issued), it is the responsibility of the International Tax Department to follow up with the visitor and to obtain the ITIN before year-end reporting.
Note: If the foreign vendor does not want to claim treaty benefits or he comes from a non-treaty country, he does not need to apply for an ITIN.
To apply for an ITIN, submit the original Form W-7 along with notarized copies of the foreign vendor’s passport including the I-94 Record and visa stamp and a copy of Form 8233 to the IRS at the address listed on the Form W-7 instructions. On Form W-7 under “Reason you are submitting Form W-7”, check boxes a and h. In the dotted lines next to h write “Exception 2” along with the treaty country and the relevant article number.
If submitting a payment transaction with the anticipation of receiving an ITIN from the IRS for a vendor, include a copy of the Form W-7 with the payment request.
Contact the Tax Department if you have questions: phone (203) 432-5597 or (203) 432-5530 or email Daysi Cardona.
Citizenship is the status of being a citizen of a country: you have the right to live there, work, vote and pay taxes.
You are considered a tax resident of a country where you are required to pay taxes, whether or not you are a citizen there. This may vary depending on the specific requirements of the country.
The payment recipient will be able to tell you their visa status since they had to apply for the visa prior to arriving in the U.S. Keep in mind that visitors from visa waiver countries do not have a visa: they can enter the U. S. with only their passport and either a visa waiver for business (WB) or a visa waiver for tourism (WT). They must check the correct visa status when they complete the International Information Form (IIF).
Payment recipients visiting from another institution will likewise already have a visa sponsored by that other institution. Please request their visa status and review the Payment Planning Tool for Individuals to verify that the payment is permissible.
Documentation is required for two reasons: to verify that the payment recipient’s visa status allows them to receive payments and to determine the recipient’s tax obligations.
The immigration documents are required to confirm the foreign visitor can receive payments from the University. U.S. immigration regulations prohibit or limit payments to certain visa statuses.
According to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations, a foreign person is subject to U.S. tax on their U.S. source income. Payment made to or on behalf of a foreign person who is considered a nonresident alien is subject to 30% federal tax withholding. The IIF and/or Form W-8BEN (W-8BEN-E for entities) are required in order to determine the foreign payment recipient’s U.S. tax residency (e.g. resident alien or nonresident alien) so that the University can meet tax withholding requirements.
Payments to foreign vendors for services performed abroad are not subject to tax withholding or reporting. The Form T-100, Statement for Independent Personal Services Performed for Yale University Outside the United States and/or Form W-8BEN (W-8BEN-E for entities) are required in order to establish location of activity and tax residency.
Your residency status for tax purposes is separate from your designation for immigration purposes. You might qualify as a resident for tax purposes while remaining a non-immigrant alien for immigration purposes. If you are present in the U.S. on a temporary visa, you might be a resident alien for tax purposes, a non-resident alien, a non-resident alien who is eligible to elect to be taxed as a resident, or a dual-status alien.